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雅思扩展阅读--经济学人赏析之美国人在慢慢拒绝碳酸饮料
文章来源:国际部   点击数:   更新时间:2017-05-05
雅思扩展阅读--经济学人赏析之美国人在慢慢拒绝碳酸饮料

MARION NESTLE'S heavyweight polemic against Coca—Cola and PepsiCo comes at an oddmoment for the industry. Americans are drinking fewer sugary sodas—in 2012 production was23% below what it had been a decade earlier. Even sales of diet drinks are losing their fizz, asconsumers question the merits of artificial sweeteners. From one angle, it would seem thathealth advocates such as Ms Nestle have won. Yet in America companies still produce 30gallons of regular (not diet) fizzy drinks per person per year. In many countries, particularlydeveloping ones, consumption is on the rise.

软饮料工业正处不尴不尬之际,马里昂?奈斯特对口可口可乐以及百事可乐的抨击颇具影响力。越来越少的美国人选择饮用含糖碳酸饮料—与十年前相比,2012年含糖碳酸饮料的生产减少了23%。人们甚至也失去了对膳食饮料的亲睐,因为消费者们对饮料中是否添加人工甜味剂提出了质疑。从某个角度来看,像奈斯特女士这样的健康倡导者似乎赢得了胜利。然而,美国软饮料公司每年生产的常规碳酸饮料(而非膳食饮料)人均多达30加仑。在许多国家,尤其是发展中国家,常规碳酸饮料的消费仍呈上涨趋势。

Ms Nestle, a professor at New York University, is both heartened by recent progress anddissatisfied with it. That is no surprise. Her first book, “Food Politics” (2002), remains a biblefor those who bewail the power of food companies. In her new book she attacks the industry'smost widely consumed, least healthy product. “Soda Politics”, she says, is a book “to inspirereaders to action”. As a rallying cry, it is verbose. When readers learn on page 238 that she willpick up a particular subject in chapter 25, it is with no little dismay that they realise they areonly on chapter 17. But what the author wants most is to craft a meticulous guide to theproducers' alleged transgressions, and how to stop them.

对于最近取得的进展,奈斯特女士,这位纽约大学的教授颇受鼓舞,但并不满足于此。这也不足为奇。她的第一本书“粮食政策”依旧被那些哀叹食品企业权势的人们奉为经典。在新书中,奈斯特女士对软饮料行业消费最广,最有害健康的产品进行了抨击。《软饮料策略》这本书旨在激励人们采取行动,奈斯特说到。然而作为战斗口号,却显得颇为繁冗。读者们在第238页了解到奈斯特将在第25章讲述一个特别的主题,却意识到自己才看到第17章,但他们并没有因此而沮丧。作者最想做的是拟定一份详细的指南,指出生产商曾经的过失,并想方设法阻止他们的这种行为。

Ms Nestle says she would have no quibbles with sweet fizzy drinks if they were sippedoccasionally, as a treat. However, for millions of people in many countries, they are not. InMexico companies sold 372 cans of fizzy drinks per person in 2012. About half of Americans donot drink them regularly, but those who do are disproportionately poor, less educated, male,Hispanic or black. Ten per cent of Americans down more than four cans a day.

奈斯特说如果人们只是在吃饭招待的时候偶尔饮用加了甜味剂的碳酸饮料,她不会提出异议。但实际上许多国家,成千上万的人们都在喝这种饮料。2012年,仅墨西哥人均消费的碳酸饮料就高达372罐。大约一半的美国人不会经常性地饮用碳酸饮料,但是那些选择碳酸饮料的人多半是些穷困潦倒,未接受良好教育的西班牙或者黑人男性。百分之十的美国人平均每天要喝掉至少4罐碳酸饮料。

Drinking a lot of sweet fizzy drinks is plainly unhealthy. Unlike a Big Mac, they have nonutritional value; nor do their calories satisfy hunger. One large study found that for each canadded to a person's daily diet, the risk of diabetes jumped by 22%. There are also linksbetween sugar and heart disease, stroke and cancer. Drinking lots of sodas imposes clear costson individuals, Ms Nestle argues, but it has a broader cost, too. American taxpayers subsidisecorn production (and thereby corn syrup) and let the poor use government food vouchers tobuy fizzy drinks. More important, taxpayers foot the health bill for those who develop chronicdisease.

很显然,过度饮用碳酸饮料对身体健康是有害的。与巨无霸不同的是,这些碳酸饮料毫无营养价值,它们产生的热量也无法抵抗饥饿。一项大型研究表明,如果在日常饮食中加入碳酸饮料,那么人们罹患糖尿病的风险就会增加22%。心脏病,中风以及癌症与过多的糖分摄入不无关系。奈斯特说,大量饮用碳酸饮料会增加个人开支,但实际上个人花费要远大于此。美国的纳税人为玉米生产做出了贡献(也就是为玉米糖浆的生产做出了贡献),同时,他们让穷人用政府提供的食品券来购买碳酸饮料。更重要的是,纳税人为那些罹患慢性疾病的人支付医疗帐单。

Encouraging people to drink fewer fizzy drinks, however, is fiendishly difficult. Soda companiesspend billions on marketing; it is a tribute to the admen that Coca—Cola is one of the world'sbest—loved brands, despite selling what is essentially fattening sugar—water. (Think of Coca—Cola's encouragements to “open happiness” and PepsiCo's exuberant spokeswoman, BeyoncéKnowles.) Once people get used to consuming sugary drinks, they are loth to give them up.There is evidence suggesting that sugar is addictive—some laboratory animals prefer sugar tococaine.

然而,鼓励人们尽量少喝碳酸饮料却出奇的难。碳酸饮料企业在营销上花费巨资。尽管可口可乐售卖的实际上是令人增肥的糖水饮料,但可口可乐无疑是世界上最受消费者青睐的品牌之一。而这对于广告人而言,是件可喜可贺的事情。(想想可口可乐颇具鼓动性的广告语“开启幸福”,百事可乐活力四射的代言人碧昂丝·诺利斯。)人们一旦习惯了消费含糖饮料,便很难戒掉。有证据表明食糖是会上瘾的—与可卡因相比,实验室的动物们更喜欢食糖。


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